Ramaswamy et. In the s, physicist John Tyndall recognized the Earth's natural greenhouse effect and suggested that slight changes in the atmospheric composition could bring about climatic variations. In , a seminal paper by Swedish scientist Svante Arrhenius first predicted that changes in the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere could substantially alter the surface temperature through the greenhouse effect.
China and the Prospects for a Global Ecological Civilization
National Academy Press, Washington, D. Levitus, S. NCEI ocean heat content, temperature anomalies, salinity anomalies, thermosteric sea level anomalies, halosteric sea level anomalies, and total steric sea level anomalies from to present calculated from in situ oceanographic subsurface profile data NCEI Accession Version 4.
National Snow and Ice Data Center. Robinson, D.
Climate change could pose 'existential threat' by report says - CNN
Hall, and T. Boulder, Colorado USA. Fahey, K. Hibbard, D. Dokken, B. Stewart, and T. Maycock eds.
The crisis of civilisation is an unprecedented opportunity
Sabine et. The planet's average surface temperature has risen about 1. Not only was the warmest year on record, but eight of the 12 months that make up the year — from January through September, with the exception of June — were the warmest on record for those respective months. An indicator of current global average temperature as measured by NASA; updated annually. Global Climate Change: Causes. An overview of the greenhouse effect and other contributors to abrupt climate change. Graphic: Global warming from to The oceans have absorbed much of this increased heat, with the top meters about 2, feet of ocean showing warming of more than 0.
Climate Kids: What is happening in the ocean? Video: Oceans of climate change. Article: Warming ocean causing most Antarctic ice shelf mass loss. Ocean waters melting the undersides of Antarctic ice shelves are responsible for most of the continent's ice shelf mass loss, a new study by NASA and university researchers has found. The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have decreased in mass.
Data from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment show Greenland lost an average of billion tons of ice per year between and , while Antarctica lost about billion tons of ice per year during the same time period. The rate of Antarctica ice mass loss has tripled in the last decade. Vital Signs: Land Ice.
Global Ice Viewer. An interactive exploration of how global warming is affecting sea ice, glaciers and continental ice sheets world wide.
Civilization in crisis : human prospects in a changing world
Glaciers are retreating almost everywhere around the world — including in the Alps, Himalayas, Andes, Rockies, Alaska and Africa. Interactive: Global ice viewer. An interactive exploration of how global warming is affect sea ice, glaciers and continental ice sheets worldwide. Satellite observations reveal that the amount of spring snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere has decreased over the past five decades and that the snow is melting earlier.
As an information and referral center in support of polar and cryospheric research,NSIDC archives and distributes digital and analog snow, ice, and. Earth Observatory: Snow Cover. Global sea level rose about 8 inches in the last century. An indicator of current global sea level as measured by satellites; updated monthly. Quiz: Sea level. Both the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice has declined rapidly over the last several decades.
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An indicator of changes in the Arctic sea ice minimum over time. An interactive exploration of how global warming is affecting sea ice, glaciers and continental ice sheets worldwide. A leading Marxist scholar, Robinson argues that a large part of Chinese capital is really a component of transnational capital, recognizing the contradictions within nation states which impact on the transnational capitalist class. An example is how China is intervening in the global financial sector Rabouin, The achievements of the last decades of economic growth in China are undeniable.
What stands out is the remarkable increase in life expectancy. Maternal mortality dropped from Even more striking is the fact that China has now overtaken the U. If the impact of air pollution on mortality were eliminated the life expectancy gains would be even more spectacular. Nevertheless, there remain very problematic features in Chinese political economy.
It is more complicated than this, however. Transnational corporations have been the greatest beneficiaries of the cheap labor and lax environmental regulation. The local bourgeoisie use everything at their disposal to increase their share of profits. The central government also makes some effort to ameliorate the conditions of employees, but decentralization of government with local government performance defined mainly in terms of growth of GDP and therefore primarily oriented to attracting and maintaining foreign investment, along with a corrupt and ineffective legal system, means that the government effectively sides with capitalists against employees and local populations.
And it is becoming evident that many officials and Communist Party members are leading capitalists, and are aligned with international capital rather than local capital.
Returning to the potential of China becoming a world leader in ecosocialist transition, I argued in Schwartzman :. Could China actually emerge as the leader of an ecosocialist path for the rest of the world? As Gare , observed, there is real and growing documented interest among Chinese intellectuals in ecosocialism.
But what is even more significant is the ongoing vigorous resistance of Chinese workers and citizens to the present mode of economic growth Li et al.
Emeritus Professor Joseph Camilleri OAM
We should take note that there are Chinese students who take their Marxism seriously, acting in solidarity with striking workers, with government repression of their efforts Shih, a. Deboom, Meredith J. Rome, Italy. Fairley, Peter. December Foster, John Bellamy. Gare, Arran. Garzon, Paulina. Hornby, Lucy and Leslie Hook. May Special Report on Global Warming of 1. IQAir Air Visual.
Kovel, Joel. New York: Zed Books. Li, Z.
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