Glial Neuronal Signaling


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Slice cultures were allowed to settle for 7—10 days before being used for experimentation to allow AVV-mediated expression to be fully established. Primary cultures of Wistar rat pups p2 cerebral astrocytes adapted from 62 transduced with AVV. Ratio of channel 1: channel 2 is indicative of a pH change. Astrocytes were imaged in time-lapse mode 0. In these experiments a red-coloured dye was added to the pipette usually SNARF-5 to confirm successful dialysis of the patched neuron.

For further details see ref. Optogenetic stimulation was applied to the LC through an optical fiber 0.

CFEs were retracted from the tissue at the end of experiments and calibrated against NE 0. Independently of the electrode sensitivity, we can expect variability in the number of local release sites around any recording position, thus resulting in variation of measured NE volume transmission between recording sites or slices. Therefore data sets including the relevant and comparable control responses were pooled for evaluation of effects. Adequate anaesthesia was ensured by maintaining stable levels of arterial blood pressure and heart rate.

The femoral artery and vein were cannulated for measurement of arterial blood pressure and administration of anesthetic, respectively. The body temperature was maintained with a servo-controlled heating pad at For EEG recordings, two small holes were drilled on the left side of the skull above the somatosensory cortex. Stainless steel electrodes were placed in the contact with the cortical surface and secured in place with dental cement.

Drugs microinjected from pipettes in small volumes are subject to very rapid dilution and therefore activate a much larger area than the actual volume of injection. In addition, metabolites such as glutamate of L -lactate are taken up by the cells and also eliminated from the tissue into the bloodstream. On the basis of the effective concentrations of L -lactate in vitro established in this work, L -lactate could be applied at concentrations much higher than those of L -glutamate because L -glutamate receptors have high affinity, while the putative L -lactate receptor must have low affinity.

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Nevertheless we decided not to increase it further to avoid possible complications due to an osmotic effect. The sites of microinjections were marked by injection of fluorescent beads, identified Post hoc histologically and mapped using a stereotaxic atlas The power spectrum of the EEG signal was analyzed using Spike2 software using a custom-written script. Monoclonal primary antibody was used MAB, Millipore, , followed by a goat anti mouse-Alexa Invitrogen, All other chemicals were from Sigma.

Microsoft Excel was used for data processing.

Embryology/Neurology - Neurogenesis [Animation]

GraphPad Prizm was used to calculate EC50 values for concentration-response curves. How to cite this article: Tang, F. Lactate-mediated glia-neuronal signalling in the mammalian brain.

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The error has not been fixed in the paper. Wang, F. Henneberger, C. Long-term potentiation depends on release of D-serine from astrocytes. Nature , — Gordon, G. Astrocyte-mediated distributed plasticity at hypothalamic glutamate synapses. Neuron 64 , — Gourine, A.

Intervening in glial cells protects neurons in Parkinson's model | EurekAlert! Science News

Astrocytes control breathing through pH-dependent release of ATP. Science , — Koizumi, S. Dynamic inhibition of excitatory synaptic transmission by astrocyte-derived ATP in hippocampal cultures. Natl Acad. USA , — Bowser, D. ATP excites interneurons and astrocytes to increase synaptic inhibition in neuronal networks. Parpura, V. Physiological astrocytic calcium levels stimulate glutamate release to modulate adjacent neurons.

USA 97 , — Panatier, A. Cell , — Bouzier-Sore, A.

Who Is Who among Glial Cells?

Lactate is a preferential oxidative energy substrate over glucose for neurons in culture. Blood Flow Metab. Pellerin, L. Evidence supporting the existence of an activity-dependent astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle. Glutamate uptake into astrocytes stimulates aerobic glycolysis: a mechanism coupling neuronal activity to glucose utilization. USA 91 , — Dienel, G. Brain lactate metabolism: the discoveries and the controversies. Barros, L. Metabolic signaling by lactate in the brain.

Trends Neurosci. Suzuki, A. Astrocyte-neuron lactate transport is required for long-term memory formation. Gibbs, M. Inhibition of astrocytic energy metabolism by D-lactate exposure impairs memory. Hall, C. Oxidative phosphorylation, not glycolysis, powers presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms underlying brain information processing. Stone, E.

Are glial cells targets of the central noradrenergic system? A review of the evidence. Brain Res. Hertz, L. Astrocytic adrenoceptors: a major drug target in neurological and psychiatric disorders? Drug Targets. Bekar, L. Locus coeruleus alpha-adrenergic-mediated activation of cortical astrocytes in vivo. Cortex 18 , — Airan, R. Temporally precise in vivo control of intracellular signalling. Chiu, T.

Action of dexmedetomidine on rat locus coeruleus neurones: intracellular recording in vitro. Hagan, J.

Structurally defined signaling in neuro‐glia units in the enteric nervous system

Orexin A activates locus coeruleus cell firing and increases arousal in the rat. USA 96 , — Walls, A. Characterization of 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol DAB as an inhibitor of brain glycogen shunt activity. Choi, H. Metabolic communication between astrocytes and neurons via bicarbonate-responsive soluble adenylyl cyclase. Neuron 75 , — Halestrap, A. The proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter MCT family: structure, function and regulation.

Wang, S. Mechanism of nitric oxide action on inhibitory GABAergic signaling within the nucleus tractus solitarii. Chan, B. Identification of lactate as a driving force for prostanoid transport by prostaglandin transporter PGT. Renal Physiol. Brain metabolism dictates the polarity of astrocyte control over arterioles. Lin, J. Characterization of engineered channelrhodopsin variants with improved properties and kinetics. Mastitskaya, S. Cardioprotection evoked by remote ischaemic preconditioning is critically dependent on the activity of vagal pre-ganglionic neurones.

Wyss, M. In vivo evidence for lactate as a neuronal energy source. Mukhtarov, M. Inhibition of spontaneous network activity in neonatal hippocampal slices by energy substrates is not correlated with intracellular acidification.

Glial Neuronal Signaling Glial Neuronal Signaling
Glial Neuronal Signaling Glial Neuronal Signaling
Glial Neuronal Signaling Glial Neuronal Signaling
Glial Neuronal Signaling Glial Neuronal Signaling
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